Web Technology

Humans can communicate with other humans easily, but when we talk about computers, there is a need to establish a connection or a network with other computers for the matter for establishing the connection. For computers- interaction, we require codes, we require programs, we require directions, we require instructions and so forth. We, humans, code the program in the computers to give them work and fulfil out the task. The innovation and rise of automatic machinery and robotics are due to the less cost and the more stable continuous output, also not requiring food, lodging and monthly salaries, they only need initial programming and then maintenance. Due to the less cost structure and more output structure, the shift has been changing from the very humans to the computers, thus leading to loss of jobs.

The computers need to communicate and form connections along with other computers and also human beings to work and deliver the output efficiently, so here, Web Technology comes into the picture. We provide information which then converts to binary for the computers to understand with the help of interpreters and deliver us in the binary form then gets converted back to the human-understandable text for us to interact. So these instructions and codes allow computers to process the information which is needed. At every instant, the computers are processing billions and billions of ones and zeros to provide us with the information required.

The methods by which the computers can communicate with each other through the use of mark-up languages and multimedia packages are known to be as Web Technology. For instance, If we imagine, networks without web technology, then so to speak, we would not have direct access to the individual computers, and would not have the ability to run anything off the cloud. Life would have been so difficult, as every time we want to look at a piece of information, we would have to do it through a direct link to the host computers. In today’s’ fast-moving generation would be inefficient and would also hamper the progress rate of processing data.

Thankfully, web technology saves us from so many complexities and inefficiencies by providing us with a platform with ways to interact with hosting websites. Using a variety of available markup languages, like the hyper Text Markup Language (HTML), along with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), wherein as per our capabilities we can range from developing text to producing incredible graphics.

With the growing advancement in technology, there is also the growth of e-business. We can observe the increased popularity on the Internet and the World Wide Web (WBB), making Web Technology important. Now, millions of computers connected to an extensive network, communicate via TCP/ IP protocols. During 1957, the Soviet satellite Sputnik launched the United States of America (USA), suspected it to be a threat to its security. Due to this perceived threat, the US started a military and academic initiative to promote research in the areas of pure science and engineering. It began under the guidance of the Department of Defence, which gave rise to a body known as the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and later shortened to ARPA.

In 1961, replacing traditional streaming, of data in waveforms, packet switching sends data in packets. Then there, the data packets in a packet switching systems are small, addition to data, they also carry information on where the data belongs in the original data stream and error checking codes to ensure that the data arrives without being corrupted. And if the packet is lost or corrupted, the receiving computer can request the missing pack can be resent, not the entire data stream.

The World Wide Web is an international hypertext platform that joins billions of document together. A hypertext link might be a picture or sentence, that which connects a different file from the internet when we click it. HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a collection of tags, used to create formatted hypertext documents. A website is a collection of multiple Web pages, and Web page is a single document created using HTML. Both Web pages and web sites are stored easily on the hard drive of a local computer or a Web server on the internet. A web browser is a program that displays the Web pages it receives. Some of the popular browsers include Microsoft Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator, Mozilla and Konqueror.

Internet Service Provider, they are the companies who provide us with services concerning the internet connection to connect to the internet. Mostly all Internet services rely on the client model, having the client software installed on his desktop also giving access to various Internet Services. So, when a user wants to connect a particular information tool, he uses his client-server to establish a connection to server programs, providing the information needed. The server model nowadays has become one of the core idea of network computing based on TCP/IP protocol.

Users do not deal with IP Addresses but deal with their preferred hostnames and can choose as per their preference or generally as per their business name. Domains have a hierarchy for naming and also covers some subsets of the entire set of the entities. At starting, there are domains which are assigned dedicated to educational institutes (.edu), government entities(.gov), commercial entities(.com), pub organisations(.org). For example, Google has Google.com. There is also a possibility to add naming level within the organisations. It is to identify sub-organisations within the larger organisations helping organisations creating divisions.

PHP Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) is one of the programming languages that enables web developers to create dynamic content that will interact with the database. The purpose is to develop a web-based software application. It can create, read, write, open and close files from a system. It can handle forms by gathering data from the files, saving data to a file, and email sends data, return data from the user. We can also have access to cookies variables and set cookies. The main feature is that it can easily encrypt data, and can also restrict users to access some pages of the website.

Security of Network is a necessary step to keep the information safe, so network security includes the practices to prevent the misuse of data by copying data, modification, making unauthorised access to a computer network and its accessible resources. Here, Network Security comes into the picture, which involves the correct authorisation to the respective owner the access to data in a network, which is controlled by the network administration. Users choose an ID and a password, or at times given ID and password and other authorisation pieces of information such as a security question, allowing them to access the data with their authority. Network securities cover a variety of networks covering publics and the privates to use in their daily jobs, making transactions or making connections with the clients, government agencies or individuals. They can be private for a company or might have an open public source. It secures the network, as well as protects the operations done on it. The most common and way out is to assign a unique name and a unique password for better safety and precaution.

The Open Systems Interconnection models (OSI models) are the conceptual models that standardise the communication operation of telecommunication. The Open Systems Interconnection models (OSI models) characterises the functions into a platform which has a set of rules and requirements to support interoperability between the products and the software. The Open Systems Interconnection models (OSI models), was developed when network computing was very young and was published in 1984 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

Domain Name System (DNS), when someone types our domain name on search, our browser ask the Domain Name System to find the IP Address that hosts our sites. So, when we register with our domain name, IP Address, should be put in Domain Name System along with our domain name, if we don’t do this, our domain name will not be functioning accurately.

Shadow DOM is a function that allows the browser to render DOM elements without putting them into the main document DOM tree. Due to this, there is a barrier created between the developer and the browser. The developer cannot access the Shadow DOM in a similar way that would happen with the nested elements, which at that time, the browser can render and can modify the code the way it should with nested elements. Shadow DOM should always be connected to an existing area, either attaching it as a literal element or through scripting.

Web 2.0, was introduced in 2004, referring to the second generation of the World Wide Web. Some examples, Blogs, which is also known as Weblogs, these Blogs allows users to post thoughts and updates about their life on the webserver. Wikis, sites like Wikipedia and others enable users from around the globe to add and make updations on online contents. Social Networking, sites like Facebook allows users to build and customise their profile sand communication with their friends. Web Application, a variety of new applications which make it possible for the users to run problems directly in a web browser as these allow users to post thoughts and update regarding the same on the web. User Participation, the users participate in content sourcing while in traditional web, there the contents are solely provided by the website owners. Long tail, the niche product is not sold directly but offered as a service on-demand criteria then the income is generated the monthly fee and pay for consumption. Rich User Experience uses AjaxAsynchronous Java Script along with XML presenting dynamic, rich user experience to users, while in Traditional web were built with HTML and CSS CGI and was offering a static page. Web 2.0 technologies provide a level user interaction that came into action now and was not available back then. Now the websites have become so dynamic along with being attractive, thus are also interconnected, producing online communities and making it even easier to share information on the server. Since these Web 2.0 offers free services, sites like Wikipedia and social media like Facebook and Instagram have grown immensely.

Issues with Web Designs: Browser and Operating Systems — we write Web Pages using different HTML Tags and view it in the browser window. The different versions of HTML also support different sets of tags. To make a web page portable, we have to test it on multiple browsers, operating systems as same browsers may work slightly different on different operating systems and hardware platforms. Bandwidth and cache, users have a different connection speed. Connection speed for designing webpages should be fast. If the user has a low bandwidth connection, and the website has too many images, it takes time to load the websites and download. Browers provides temporary memory called cache to store the graphics. Look And Feel, they make the overall appearance of the website. Page Layout and Linking, websites contain many web pages that are linked using navigational links. Page layout defines the visual, structure of the pages and divide area into parts to present the information of varying importance. Location information, the webpage is viewed on a computer screen, the screen is there in 5 parts, right, left, centre, bottom or in any particular order.

Making Design is user-centric due to which it is difficult to predict the exact behaviour of the Web sites users. The idea of the general users helps in thus making designs of the website user-centric. Sitemapping: many times the website is too complicated as there are a large number of sections and each section contains many pages, due to this it becomes difficult for visitors to move from one part to other quickly. Once the user selects a particular area on a page, users at times can get confused, where to go from there. So, to make it simple, we should keep our hierarchy of information to a few levels or provide the navigation bar on every page to jump directly to a particular section.



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